Gabion is a wire-stone element made of steel mesh panels filled with natural stone or aggregates. Gabions give the impression of a very simple construction, but with the incorrect design, or with unfortunate specification of gabion, you will not reach the desired visual status and possibly this may cause structural failure. The use of gabion depends on the function of iplemented structures.
The structure is composed from gabions formed in shape of cube or of cuboid, assembled from parts of welded steel mesh, which are filled with natural quarry stone or aggregate. Tensile strength of the network depends on the type of the mesh and the wire diameter. Weld strength must be at least 75% of the limit tensile strength of wire. Panels are connected with spirals, or C-clips creating shapes of baskets or mattresses in desired size. Gabions are reinforced by rod spacers.
The structure is composed from gabions in shape of cube or of cuboid made from hexagonal double twisted steel mesh, which are filled with natural or quarry stones. Tensile strength of the network depends on the type of the mesh and the wire diameter. Baskets and mattresses are connected with bonding wires, or C-clips. The rod spacers are used for reinforcing gabions.
The design of gabion retaining wall must meet all the criteria for the gravity wall. It implements in a simple modular manner, gabions are filled directly on the site with suitable cushioning stone / aggregate. It represents aesthetic, naturally acting permeable structure with drainage functions used mainly at the bottom of the slope.
It is proposed as an architectural element without structural function. Gabion with aesthetic function is anchored to the supporting structure (eg. reinforced concrete pile walls, reinforced concrete wall, nailing slopes with shotcrete). There is preference to use a panel of welded wire mesh. The parameters of the individual elements of gabion cladding and anchoring elements are specified in the project documentation.
Represent an alternative facing of Reinforced Soil Structures composed of gabion baskets. A facing is used to retain backfill between the horizontal geosynthetic reinforcement, and has both carrier and aesthetic function that is used to protect against erosion of the surface of RSS. It is used for reinforced steep slopes (45 ° -70 °) and reinforced walls (70 ° -90 °), reinforced bridge supports and wings. Flexible facing elements are mostly built in desired inclination from gabion elements, the height of elements is 0.5 m.
It is used to stabilize the riverbed slopes in water management, as well as protective anti-erosion measures of road embankment slopes in floodplains. They are mostly implemented on slope with gradient of 1:2. The purpose of their use is a fortification of slopes, embedding gabion in flux, dams and also to protect bridge piers positioned in the river water flow.
They are the transverse structures with a overflow height more than 1.8 m, which serve to mitigate the trim of the flow channel and also to reduce sediment transport. Weir are not accumulating objects. We divide gabion weir into these types, depending on the shape of the air flow in the middle of the slope to: gradual weir, stepped weir and weir-type slip. In their design process are important design details such as stability and resistance wings, crown protection and broth.
Gabions have already found their permanent place also in landscaping. They are used to create landscaping steps, retaining walls, fencing, benches, flower pots. The advantage is quick installation, natural look and diversified use.